عنوان مقاله [English]
In medieval history, Iranian governments did not have fixed and unified laws for the judiciary. Because of the judicial components, governance has changed over time according to historical events. The Qajar system, according to its traditional way of governing, was formed on the basis of traditional judicial laws. Laws that were enforced not by written and comprehensive law but by the wishes of the sultan, prince, and local ruler. Punishments, like personal trials, were carried out according to the will of the qibla and different from conventional international law. This research is a descriptive-analytical method and data collection method based on archival documents and library resources. Findings show that the tyranny of Qajar kings, princes, rulers, some of the clergy and their absolute tyranny, lack of legal judicial system, use of inhumane punishments to prevent the recurrence of crime and the example of others, various punishments for personal gain, formed the nature of the Qajar judicial system . Despite various efforts to reform the judicial and legal structure that began during the presidency of Amir Kabir during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah and was linked to the Constitutional Revolution, the situation continued until the end of the Qajar period with ups and downs.